Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, April 2001 v79 i4 p280.

Title: Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial.

Author: Les Roberts, Yves Chartier, Oana Chartier, Grace Malenga, Michael Toole and Henry Rodka

"Our study implies that the converse may be true: it is believed that water contamination in Nyamithuthu Camp, as indicated by faecal coliforms, is caused primarily by the hands of family members, and that this contamination causes measurable amounts of diarrhoea in young family members."